Git Commit Messages

  • Use the present tense ("Add feature" not "Added feature")
  • Use the imperative mood ("Move cursor to..." not "Moves cursor to...")
  • Limit the first line to 72 characters or less
  • Reference issues and pull requests liberally after the first line
  • When only changing documentation, include [ci skip] in the commit title
  • Consider starting the commit message with an applicable emoji:
    • 🎨 :art: when improving the format/structure of the code
    • 🐎 :racehorse: when improving performance
    • 🚱 :non-potable_water: when plugging memory leaks
    • 📝 :memo: when writing docs
    • 🐧 :penguin: when fixing something on Linux
    • 🍎 :apple: when fixing something on macOS
    • 🏁 :checkered_flag: when fixing something on Windows
    • 🐛 :bug: when fixing a bug
    • 🔥 :fire: when removing code or files
    • 💚 :green_heart: when fixing the CI build
    • :white_check_mark: when adding tests
    • 🔒 :lock: when dealing with security
    • ⬆️ :arrow_up: when upgrading dependencies
    • ⬇️ :arrow_down: when downgrading dependencies
    • 👕 :shirt: when removing linter warnings
    • 🎉:tada: when tagging a release
    • 🐳 :whale: when dealing with Docker

Based on https://github.com/atom/atom/blob/master/CONTRIBUTING.md#git-commit-messages

Examples

Appears under "Features" header, pencil subheader:

feat(pencil): add 'graphiteWidth' option

Appears under "Bug Fixes" header, graphite subheader, with a link to issue #28:

fix(graphite): stop graphite breaking when width < 0.1

Closes #28

Appears under "Performance Improvements" header, and under "Breaking Changes" with the breaking change explanation:

perf(pencil): remove graphiteWidth option

BREAKING CHANGE: The graphiteWidth option has been removed. The default graphite width of 10mm is always used for performance reason.

The following commit and commit 667ecc1 do not appear in the changelog if they are under the same release. If not, the revert commit appears under the "Reverts" header.

revert: feat(pencil): add 'graphiteWidth' option

This reverts commit 667ecc1654a317a13331b17617d973392f415f02.

Commit Message Format

A commit message consists of a header, body and footer. The header has a type, scope and subject:

<type>(<scope>): <subject>
<BLANK LINE>
<body>
<BLANK LINE>
<footer>

The header is mandatory and the scope of the header is optional.

Any line of the commit message cannot be longer 100 characters! This allows the message to be easier to read on GitHub as well as in various git tools.

Revert

If the commit reverts a previous commit, it should begin with revert:, followed by the header of the reverted commit. In the body it should say: This reverts commit <hash>., where the hash is the SHA of the commit being reverted.

Type

If the prefix is feat, fix or perf, it will always appear in the changelog.

Other prefixes are up to your discretion. Suggested prefixes are docs, chore, style, refactor, and test for non-changelog related tasks.

Scope

The scope could be anything specifying place of the commit change. For example $location, $browser, $compile, $rootScope, ngHref, ngClick, ngView, etc...

Subject

The subject contains succinct description of the change:

  • use the imperative, present tense: "change" not "changed" nor "changes"
  • don't capitalize first letter
  • no dot (.) at the end

Body

Just as in the subject, use the imperative, present tense: "change" not "changed" nor "changes". The body should include the motivation for the change and contrast this with previous behavior.

Footer

The footer should contain any information about Breaking Changes and is also the place to reference GitHub issues that this commit Closes.

Breaking Changes should start with the word BREAKING CHANGE: with a space or two newlines. The rest of the commit message is then used for this.

A detailed explanation can be found in this document.

Based on https://github.com/angular/angular.js/blob/master/CONTRIBUTING.md#commit